Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-34

Acute liver failure in pregnancy: Causative and prognostic factors

1 Department of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Gastroenterology, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Shweta Sahai
Department of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
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Source of Support: Department of Reproductive and Child Health, Government of Madhya Pradesh, India, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-3767.151221

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Background/Aims: Acute liver failure (ALF) in pregnancy is often associated with a poor prognosis. In this single-center observational study we aim to study the incidence, causes, and factors affecting mortality in pregnant women with ALF. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight pregnant women reporting with clinical features of liver dysfunction were enrolled as "cases." Their clinical course was followed and laboratory studies were performed. The presence of ALF was defined as the appearance of encephalopathy. The results were compared with a "control" group of 16 nonpregnant women presenting with similar complaints. The cases were further subdivided into two groups of "survivors" and "nonsurvivors" and were compared to find out the factors that contribute to mortality. Results: ALF was seen in significantly more number of pregnant women than the controls (P = 0.0019). The mortality rate was also significantly higher (P = 0.0287). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) caused jaundice in a higher number of pregnant women (P < 0.001). It also caused ALF in majority (70.3%) of pregnant women, but HEV infection was comparable between the survivors and nonsurvivors (P = 0.0668), hence could not be correlated with mortality. Conclusions: Pregnant women appear to be more susceptible for HEV infection and development of ALF. The mortality of jaundiced pregnant women increased significantly with appearance of ALF, higher bilirubin, lower platelet count, higher international normalized ratio, and spontaneous delivery.

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