Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 306-311

Successful response of intradermal hepatitis B vaccine in nonresponders of intramuscular hepatitis B vaccine in general and hemodialysis population

Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zain Majid
Department of Hepato.Gastroenterology, Dewan Farooq building, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation , Chand Bibi Road, Karachi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjg.SJG_300_20

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Background: Hepatitis B infection is one of the most common infections worldwide, with its vaccination being an effective preventive measure. Nonresponse to hepatitis B vaccination increases population susceptibility to virus dissemination along with detrimental complications. Despite twice intramuscular vaccination series, 14.3% in the general population and 50% in hemodialysis patients fail to mount a response against hepatitis B. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intradermal (ID) vaccination in the nonresponders amongst the general and hemodialysis population. Methods: A total of 5 doses of 10 μg of hepatitis B vaccine was given intradermally, 2 weeks apart, to both the study groups: patients who were on hemodialysis and the general population group who previously had failed to achieve satisfactory antibody titers with the IM administration of the vaccine. A hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titer of ≥10 IU/mL and ≥100 IU/mL were considered “responder” and “good responder,” respectively. Results: Out of a total of 95 participants, 49 (51.6%) were hemodialysis-dependent. Most of the participants were females 49 (51.6%). The mean age of all the participants was 39.02 ± 13.5 years (range: 18–70 years). Overall, 75.8% of the participants responded to the ID vaccination with a mean HBsAb titer of 263.5 ± 350.1 IU/L. Almost similar vaccination response was observed in both the hemodialysis and general population i.e., 75.5% and 76.1%, respectively (P = 1.00). In the hemodialysis group, the absence of hypertension (P = 0.04) and age ≥36 years (P = 0.016) were associated with an ID vaccination response. Conclusion: For those not responding to the conventional IM route of the hepatitis B vaccine, the ID route is an effective way of immunization in this group and this approach would lead to a decrease in infection rates in the vulnerable population such as those on hemodialysis.

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