Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   2013| September-October  | Volume 19 | Issue 5  
    Online since September 13, 2013

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Appropriateness and diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in an open-access endoscopy system
Abdulrahman M Aljebreen, Khalid Alswat, Majid A Almadi
September-October 2013, 19(5):219-222
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118128  PMID:24045595
Background/Aim: Open access endoscopy (OAE) decreases the waiting time for patients and clinical burden to gastroenterologist; however, the appropriateness of referrals for endoscopy and thus the diagnostic yield of these endoscopies has become an important issue. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy requests in an OAE system. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review of all consecutive patients who underwent an upper gastroscopy in the year 2008 was performed and was defined as appropriate or inappropriate according to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines. Endoscopic findings were recorded and classified as positive or negative. Referrals were categorized as being from a gastroenterologist, internist, surgeon, primary care physicians or others, and on an inpatient or out-patient basis. Results: A total of 505 consecutive patients were included. The mean age was 45.3 (standard deviation 18.1), 259 (51%) of them were males. 31% of the referrals were thought to be inappropriate. Referrals from primary care physicians were inappropriate in 47% of patients while only 19.5% of gastroenterologists referrals were considered inappropriate. Nearly, 37.8% of the out-patient referrals were inappropriate compared to only 7.8% for inpatients. Abnormal findings were found in 78.5% and 78% of patients referred by gastroenterologists and surgeons respectively while in those referred by primary care physicians it was (49.7%). Inpatients referred for endoscopy had abnormal findings in (81.7%) while in out-patients it was (66.6%). The most common appropriate indications in order of frequency were "upper abdominal distress that persisted despite an appropriate trial of therapy "(78.9%),''persistent vomiting of unknown cause "(19.2%), upper GI bleeding or unexplained iron deficiency anemia (7.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of the ASGE guidelines in our study population was 70.3% and 35% respectively. Conclusion: A large proportion of patients referred for endoscopy through our open-access endoscopy unit are considered inappropriate, with significant differences among specialties. These results suggest that if proper education of practitioners was implemented, a better utilization would be expected.
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Administration of erythromycin before endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Shoba Theivanayagam, Roxanne G Lim, William J Cobell, Jayashree T Gowda, Michelle L Matteson, Abhishek Choudhary, Matthew L Bechtold
September-October 2013, 19(5):205-210
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118120  PMID:24045593
Background/Aim: Erythromycin infusion before endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has been hypothesized to aid in visualization and reduce the need for second-look endoscopy; however, the results have been controversial. To evaluate further, we performed a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of erythromycin infusion before endoscopy in acute UGIB. Methods: Multiple databases were searched (March 2013). Only randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. A meta-analysis for the effect of erythromycin or no erythromycin before endoscopy in UGIB were analyzed by calculating pooled estimates of primary (visualization of gastric mucosa and need for second endoscopy) and secondary (units of blood transfused, length of hospital stay, duration of the procedure) outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration). Results: Six studies (N = 558) met the inclusion criteria. Erythromycin infusion before endoscopy in UGIB demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in visualization of the gastric mucosa [odds ratio (OR) 3.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81 to 6.50, P < 0.01] compared with no erythromycin. In addition, erythromycin infusion before endoscopy resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the need for a second endoscopy (OR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.83, P = 0.01), units of blood transfused (WMD − 0.41; 95% CI: −0.82 to −0.01, P = 0.04), and the duration of hospital stay (WMD − 1.51; 95% CI: −2.45 to −0.56, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Erythromycin infusion before endoscopy in patients with UGIB significantly improves visualization of gastric mucosa while decreasing the need for a second endoscopy, units of blood transfused, and duration of hospital stay.
  6 6,038 992
Propafenone hepatotoxicity: Report of a new case and review of the literature
Lara B Younan, Kassem A Barada, Walid G Faraj, Ayman N Tawil, Mark N Jabbour, Maurice Y Khoury, Nadim MW El-Majzoub, Mohamad A Eloubeidi
September-October 2013, 19(5):235-237
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118137  PMID:24045598
Propafenone is a class Ic antiarrhythmic drug. It is a beta-adrenergic blocker that causes bradycardia and bronchospasm. It is metabolized primarily in the liver. Its bioavailability and plasma concentration differ among patients under long-term therapy. They are genetically determined by the hepatic cytochrome P-450 2D6. Hepatic toxicity is highly uncommon. To date, only eight patients were reported in the reviewed world literature. In this article, one new case will be reported emphasizing the importance of medication history taking in patients presenting with new-onset liver enzymes abnormalities.
  3 2,850 451
Factors associated with development of complications after endoscopic foreign body removal
Yu-Kyung Park, Kyeong-Ok Kim, Jae-Hong Yang, Si-Hyung Lee, Byung-Ik Jang
September-October 2013, 19(5):230-234
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118136  PMID:24045597
Background/Aims: We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent endoscopic foreign body removal and the risk factors of complications. Patients and Methods: The medical records of 415 patients treated from January 2000 to August 2011 for suspected foreign bodies were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics, endoscopic findings, clinical outcomes, and risk factors of complications were analyzed. Results: Foreign bodies were detected endoscopically in 315 patients. Fish bone fragment (36.9%) and coins (15.3%) were the most common type of foreign bodies in adults and children, respectively. Complications associated with endoscopic procedure occurred in 26 patients (8.3%); 20 of the patients were treated conservatively and the other six patients underwent surgical treatment. Perforation (14%) was the most common complication. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated with complication after endoscopic foreign body removal were long duration from ingestion to endoscopy ( P = 0.009) and existence of initial mucosal injury ( P = 0.018). Conclusions: Most foreign bodies were successfully removed by endoscopy without complication, but long duration from ingestion to endoscopy and mucosal injury were risk factors of complications of endoscopic foreign body removal. Patients with these risk factors could require more careful treatment.
  3 2,906 377
State-of-the-art management of acute bleeding peptic ulcer disease
Hisham Al Dhahab, Julia McNabb-Baltar, Talal Al-Taweel, Alan Barkun
September-October 2013, 19(5):195-204
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118116  PMID:24045592
The management of patients with non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding has evolved, as have its causes and prognosis, over the past 20 years. The addition of high-quality data coupled to the publication of authoritative national and international guidelines have helped define current-day standards of care. This review highlights the relevant clinical evidence and consensus recommendations that will hopefully result in promoting the effective dissemination and knowledge translation of important information in the management of patients afflicted with this common entity.
  3 6,869 1,229
Comparison of the virulence markers of helicobacter pylori and their associated diseases in patients from Pakistan and Afghanistan
Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Muhammad W Usman, Fatima Jafri, Safia Awan
September-October 2013, 19(5):211-218
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118123  PMID:24045594
Background/Aim: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria, which is associated with development of gastroduodenal diseases. The prevalence of H. pylori and the virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene A and E (cagA, cagE) and vacuolating-associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles varies in different parts of the world. H. pylori virulence markers cagA, cagE, and vacA alleles in local and Afghan nationals with H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases were studied. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and ten patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and positive for H. pylori by the urease test and histology were included. One hundred and nineteen were local nationals and 91 were Afghans. The cagA, cagE, and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) was common in the Afghan patients (P = 0.025). In Afghan H. pylori strains, cagA was positive in 14 (82%) with gastric carcinoma (GC) compared with 29 (45%) with NUD (P = 0.006), whereas cagE was positive in 11 (65%) with GC and 4 (67%) with duodenal ulcer (DU) compared with 12 (18%) with NUD (P < 0.001 and 0.021, respectively). The vacA s1a/b1was positive in 10 (59%) of GC compared with 20 (31%) in NUD (P = 0.033). In Pakistani strains, cagE was positive in 12 (60%) with GC, 7 (58%) with GU, 12 (60%) with DU compared with 11 (16%) with NUD (P < 0.001, 0.004, and < 0.001, respectively). In Pakistani strains, cagA/s1a/m1 was 39 (33%) compared with Afghans in 17 (19%) (P = 0.022). Moderate to severe mucosal inflammation was present in 51 (43%) Pakistani patients compared with 26 (28%) (P = 0.033) in Afghans. It was also associated with grade 1 lymphoid aggregate development in Pakistani patients 67 (56%) compared with 36 (40%) (P = 0.016) in Afghans. Conclusion: Distribution of H. pylori virulence marker cagE with DU was similar in Afghan and Pakistan H. pylori strains. Chronic active inflammation was significantly associated with Pakistani H. pylori strains.
  2 4,250 591
Increased duration of dual pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for genotype 1 hepatitis C Post-liver transplantation increases sustained virologic response: A retrospective review
Malcolm M Wells, Lee S Roth, Paul Marotta, Mark Levstik, Andrew L Mason, Vincent G Bain, Natasha Chandok, Bandar M Aljudaibi
September-October 2013, 19(5):223-229
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118133  PMID:24045596
Background/Aim: In patients with advanced post-transplant hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence, antiviral treatment (AVT) with interferon and ribavirin is indicated to prevent graft failure. The aim of this study was to determine and report Canadian data with respect to the safety, efficacy, and spontaneous virologic response (SVR) predictors of AVT among transplanted patients with HCV recurrence. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients transplanted in London, Ontario and Edmonton, Alberta from 2002 to 2012 who were treated for HCV. Demographic, medical, and treatment information was collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 85 patients with HCV received pegylated interferon with ribavirin post-liver transplantation and 28 of the 65 patients (43%) with genotype 1 achieved SVR. Of the patients having genotype 1 HCV who achieved SVR, there was a significantly lower stage of fibrosis (1.37 ± 0.88 vs. 1.89 ± 0.96; P = 0.03), increased ribavirin dose (total daily dose 1057 ± 230 vs. 856 ± 399 mg; P = 0.02), increased rapid virologic response (RVR) (6/27 vs. 0/31; P = 0.05), increased early virologic response (EVR) (28/28 vs. 18/35; P = 0.006), and longer duration of therapy (54.7 ± 13.4 weeks vs. 40.2 ± 18.7; P = 0.001). A logistic regression model using gender, age, RVR, EVR, anemia, duration of therapy, viral load, years' post-transplant, and type of organ (donation after cardiac death vs. donation after brain death) significantly predicted SVR (P < 0.001), with duration of therapy having a significant odds ratio of 1.078 (P = 0.007). Conclusions: This study identified factors that predict SVR in HCV-positive patients who received dual therapy post-transplantation. Extending therapy from 48 weeks to 72 weeks of dual therapy is associated with increased SVR rates. Future studies examining the role of extended therapy are needed to confirm these findings, since the current study is a retrospective one.
  1 2,870 374
Prophylactic erythromycin in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Moving forward in improving endoscopic efficacy
Stephen Kim, V Raman Muthusamy
September-October 2013, 19(5):193-194
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118109  PMID:24045591
  - 2,426 459
Widespread nodules and adhesions in abdomen
Morteza Noaparast, Rasoul Mirsharifi, Reza Parsaei
September-October 2013, 19(5):238-239
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118138  PMID:24045599
  - 3,153 293
Clinical use of capsule endoscopy in a patient with cardiac pacemaker
Osman Ersoy, Ebru Akin, Aylin Demirezer
September-October 2013, 19(5):240-240
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118139  PMID:24045600
  - 2,038 247
Helicobacter pylori in the era of probiotics: A controversial application
Amin T.B Abadi, Ashraf M Mobarez, Fatemeh H.A Tabrizi
September-October 2013, 19(5):240-241
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.118140  PMID:24045601
  - 1,992 383
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