Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology
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   2014| July-August  | Volume 20 | Issue 4  
    Online since July 19, 2014

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Prevalence of symptoms of gastroesopahgeal reflux in a cohort of Saudi Arabians: A study of 1265 subjects
Majid A Almadi, Maitha A Almousa, Amani F Althwainy, Afnan M Altamimi, Hala O Alamoudi, Hiba S Alshamrani, Othman R Alharbi, Nahla A Azzam, Nazia Sadaf, Abdulrahman M Aljebreen
July-August 2014, 20(4):248-254
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136982  PMID:25038211
Background/Aims: In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the general population of the capital city of Riyadh and to assess its association with other factors including age, smoking, body mass index (BMI), asthma, as well as the presence of other co-morbid diseases. Materials and Methods: We used the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GerdQ) for diagnosing GERD, based on a GerdQ score of 8 or more. Riyadh was divided into four quadrants, and from each area, a single shopping mall was chosen randomly to conduct our surveys. Data collected included age, sex, history of smoking, history of asthma or any other medical condition, dietary habits, monthly household income, history and frequency of heartburn, epigastric pain, regurgitation of food, nausea, sleep disturbance from heartburn, the use of common over-the-counter antacids for the control of their symptoms, and their height and weight. Results: Over a 4-week period from the 19 December 2012 to 17 January 2013, a total of 1265 individuals were included in the survey. The mean age was 29.97 ± 11.58 years. Females formed 67.81% of the respondents and 62.73% had one or more episodes of heartburn per week. Based on a cutoff GERDQ score of 8, the prevalence of GERD in the surveyed population was 45.4%. GERD was more prevalent in older individuals (mean age 31.9 vs. 30.0 years, P < 0.001) and in those with a higher BMI (27.29 vs. 26.31 kg/m 2 , P = 0.02). There was no difference between males (45.43%) and females (45.13%) (P = 0.92); there was a trend of a higher prevalence in smokers (51.63% vs. 44.41%), but it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusion: Symptoms suggestive of GERD as determined by the translated GerdQ are prevalent among this study population.
  14 4,864 587
A Korean experience of the use of Boston bowel preparation scale: A valid and reliable instrument for colonoscopy-oriented research
Eun-Jin Kim, Young-Il Park, You-Sun Kim, Won-Wo Park, Sun-Ok Kwon, Kyoung-Sik Park, Cheol-Hun Kwak, Jin-Nam Kim, Jeong-Seop Moon
July-August 2014, 20(4):219-224
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136950  PMID:25038207
Background/Aims: Few bowel preparation scales have been validated. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) is a novel bowel preparation scale in western countries. We validated the BBPS in Korean patients and assessed the relationship between the colon polyp detection rate and BBPS score. Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, single-center trial. The BBPS is a 10-point scale that assesses bowel preparation after the completion of all cleansing maneuvers. We assessed three segment scores (the right side, transverse section, and left side) and total BBPS scores during screening colonoscopy. In addition, we compared the BBPS scores with clinically meaningful outcomes such as the polyp detection rate and colonoscope withdrawal times. Results: We enrolled 482 screening colonoscopies between January 2011 and January 2012. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) BBPS score was 8.1 ± 1.1. Higher BBPS scores (≥8 vs <8) were associated with a higher polyp detection rate (44.9% vs. 33.0%, P = 0.042). The BBPS scores were inversely correlated with colonoscope withdrawal times (r = −0.167, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The BBPS is a valid and reliable measure for assessing bowel preparation during colonoscopy in Korean patients. The polyp detection rate is higher in patients with higher BBPS scores than in those with lower BBPS scores during a colonoscopic procedure.
  9 7,374 599
Effect of rifaximin, probiotics, and l-ornithine l-aspartate on minimal hepatic encephalopathy: A randomized controlled trial
Kapil Sharma, Sanjay Pant, Sriprakash Misra, Manisha Dwivedi, Alok Misra, Sushil Narang, Reshu Tewari, Ajeet S Bhadoria
July-August 2014, 20(4):225-232
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136975  PMID:25038208
Background/Aims: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) implies subtle impairment of cognitive functions in the absence of features of overt encephalopathy. We aimed to determine the prevalence of MHE in patients with liver cirrhosis and to find out the effect of rifaximin, probiotics, and l-ornithine l-aspartate (LOLA) individually in reversal of MHE by comparing it with placebo group. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out in two phases. Phase I included the recruitment of 250 apparently healthy controls and extraction of normative data utilizing three neuropsychometric tests (NPTs) and critical flicker frequency (CFF) test. Phase II consisted of screening and recruitment of patients of MHE followed by drugs trial. A total of 317 cirrhotics were screened; 111 were excluded and the remaining 206 cirrhotics were screened for MHE using NPTs and/or CFF test. Of these, 124 patients with MHE were randomized to receive LOLA (n = 31), rifaximin (n = 31), probiotics (n = 32), for 2 months and were compared with patients who were given placebo (n = 30). Results: Out of 206 cirrhotics, 124 (60.19%) had MHE. Among these 124 MHE patients, 87 (70.16%) patients had CFF <39Hz, 112 (90.32%) patients with MHE had two or more abnormal NPTs, and 75 (60.48%) patients had abnormality on both the CFF values and more than two abnormal NPTs. Intention-to-treat analysis showed the number of patients who improved after giving treatment were 67.7% (21/31), 70.9% (22/31), 50% (16/32), and 30% (9/30) for LOLA, rifaximin, probiotics, and placebo, respectively. CFF scores and improvement in psychometric tests after treatment were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for LOLA, rifaximin, and probiotics as compared with placebo group. Conclusions: Prevalence of MHE is high in patients with cirrhosis of liver. Rifaximin, LOLA, and probiotics are better than giving placebo in patients with MHE.
  7 6,318 1,379
Hepatic fibrinogen storage disease due to the fibrinogen γ375 Arg → Trp mutation "fibrinogen aguadilla" is present in Arabs
Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini, Abdulhadi Altalhi, Imad El Hag, Hussa AlHussaini, Paola Francalanci, Isabella Giovannoni, Francesco Callea
July-August 2014, 20(4):255-261
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136985  PMID:25038212
The mutation γ375Arg → Trp (fibrinogen Aguadilla) is one of four mutations (Brescia, Aguadilla, Angers, and AI duPont) capable of causing hepatic storage of fibrinogen. It has been observed in four children from the Caribbean, Europe, and Japan, suffering from cryptogenic liver disease. We report the first case of hepatic fibrinogen storage disease in Arabs due to a mutation in the fibrinogen γ-chain gene in a 3-year-old Syrian girl presenting with elevated liver enzymes. The finding of an impressive accumulation of fibrinogen in liver cells raised the suspicion of endoplasmic reticulum storage disease. Sequencing of the fibrinogen genes revealed a γ375Arg → Trp mutation (fibrinogen Aguadilla) in the child and in her father. In conclusion, when confronted with chronic hepatitis of unknown origin, one should check the plasma fibrinogen level and look carefully for the presence of hepatocellular intracytoplasmic globular inclusions to exclude hepatic fibrinogen storage disease.
  6 3,869 358
Swallow syncope: Clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic options
Shashank Garg, Mohit Girotra, Stephen Glasser, Sudhir K Dutta
July-August 2014, 20(4):207-211
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136932  PMID:25038205
We recently encountered three patients with episodes of syncope associated with food ingestion. A 31-year-old woman had an episode of syncope in the hospital while drinking soda. Transient asystole was noted on the telemonitor, confirming the diagnosis of swallow syncope. The other two patients were 78- and 80 year old gentlemen, respectively, who presented with recurrent and transient episodes of dizziness during deglutition. Extensive work-up of syncope was negative in both cases and a diagnosis of swallow syncope was made by clinical criteria. These cases illustrate the challenging problem of swallow syncope. The diagnosis can be suspected on the basis of clinical presentation and confirmed with the demonstration of transient brady-arrhythmia during deglutition. Medical management includes avoiding trigger foods, use of anticholinergics, and/or placement of a permanent cardiac pacemaker.
  6 6,255 628
Epidemiology and pattern of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori: Scenario from Saudi Arabia
Mohammed Rizwan, Nuzhath Fatima, Ayesha Alvi
July-August 2014, 20(4):212-218
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136935  PMID:25038206
Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a major cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoma. Infection with this gram-negative microaerophile has been treated using combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors for different gastrointestinal diseases. The most commonly used treatment is triple therapy which consists of administration of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. Many factors contribute to treatment failure, but one of the main reasons is development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. The percent prevalence of antibiotic resistance varies among different countries; it appears to be partly determined by the geographic factors and its ability to undergo frequent homologous recombination. The aim of this paper is to review the prevalence of H. pylori infection, association of clinical outcomes with H. pylori genotypes, and current status of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori in Saudi Arabia. It also discusses the different alternative approaches for the treatment of H. pylori using antibiotics. In addition, association of antibiotic resistance with H. pylori virulent genotypes in Saudi population and its underlying resistance mechanism will also be discussed.
  4 6,448 851
Lymphangioma of the ileocecal valve clinically masquerading as a submucosal small intestinal GIST: Report of a case and literature review
Omar A Al-Obeed, Maha-Hamadien Abdulla
July-August 2014, 20(4):262-264
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136986  PMID:25038213
Lymphangiomas are rare tumors affecting the gastrointestinal tract, and may be seen in the bowel, gall bladder, and pancreas. They resemble hemangiomas, but consist of spaces of variable sizes containing lymph. In this report, we describe the case of a 53-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation. Computerized tomography (CT) scan showed a polypoidal lesion at the ileocecal valve which was thought to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Resected specimen did, however, show a lymphangioma. We also describe the clinicopathologic features of gastrointestinal lymphangiomas with a literature review.
  2 3,200 397
Distinguishing between Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, and lymphoma: Still in murky waters
Majid A Almadi
July-August 2014, 20(4):205-206
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136931  PMID:25038204
  2 2,472 435
Differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease and primary intestinal lymphoma in China
Yun-Yan Liu, Ming-Kai Chen, Zhuo Cao, Shu-Zhong Liu, Bai-Jing Ding
July-August 2014, 20(4):241-247
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136979  PMID:25038210
Background/Aims: There are many similarities and overlaps in clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and histological features among intestinal tuberculosis (ITB), Crohn's disease (CD), and primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL), and the differential diagnosis of ITB can be very challenging for clinicians. Patients and Methods: The clinical, radiologic, endoscopic, and pathological data of 213 patients were analyzed retrospectively. According to the diagnostic criteria and exclusive criteria of ITB, CD, and PIL, 83 patients were recruited and divided into three groups, including 30 cases in the ITB group, 38 cases in the CD group, and 15 cases in the PIL group, and the medical data and statistical analysis were recorded. Results : Rural patients with abdominal pain as the first symptom and with transverse ulcer and caseating granulomas were more common in the ITB group than the CD group, whereas urban patients with stool change as the first symptom, moderate or severe anemia, thickening of intestinal wall, rectal involvement, skipping distribution, prominent lymphoid aggregates, and irregular glands were more common in CD group than ITB group (P < 0.05). Young patients (age < 30 years) with fever, weakness, fatigue, abdominal mass, intestinal perforation, and emergent operation were more common in ITB group than PIL group, whereas thickening of intestinal wall, malignant lymphocytes, limited distribution, and involvement of small intestine occurred more in PIL group than ITB group (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The differential diagnosis of ITB from CD and PIL can be made by a combination of clinical manifestation, endoscopy, and pathological examinations.
  1 4,309 734
Association of help-seeking behavior with depression and anxiety disorders among gastroenterological patients in Saudi Arabia
Fahad D Alosaimi, Omar Al-sultan, Qusay Alghamdi, Ibrahim Almohaimeed, Sulaiman Alqannas
July-August 2014, 20(4):233-240
DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.136977  PMID:25038209
Background/Aims: There is a high prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among gastroenterological outpatients. Relatively few studies have been done on the help-seeking behavior among those who suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms with or without psychiatric disorders. We aimed to characterize the help-seeking behavior of gastroenterological outpatients and to evaluate if this behavior is linked to the presence of depression and anxiety. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in four hospitals in Riyadh between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires were used to diagnose depression and anxiety, respectively. Results: A total of 440 patients completed the study questionnaire. The average age was 36.0 ± 12.8 years and 69% of the patients were males. Complaints included abdominal pain (58%), heartburn (29%), diarrhea or constipation (25%), appetite or weight changes (22%), and nausea or vomiting (16%). Depression was diagnosed in 36%, while anxiety was diagnosed in 28% of the patients. The first intervention was use of medications (68%) and undergoing endoscopy (16%), while few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation (7.5%). This first intervention was done primarily (59%) in private sector hospitals rather than government sector hospitals (36%). The rates of depression and anxiety in our patients were higher among those who suffered from multiple complaints for longer durations and with less satisfaction with the offered services. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities in gastroenterological outpatient population, especially those who have a chronic course of multiple gastrointestinal complaints.
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