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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity of CNN-based AI based on endoscopic images for the diagnosis of early EC. The dots correspond to the individual studies included in this analysis, and both sides of the line represent the 95% CI. The narrower the line is, the greater the accuracy of the study and the greater the weight. The diamond corresponds to the pooled result. The intermediate vertical line represents an invalid line. Q statistic test card square value (Chi-square), degree of freedom (df), P values, and I2 statistic test results (inconsistency [I2]) correspond to heterogeneity test results. The Q test was used to assess heterogeneity, while the I2 test was used to measure the size of heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was considered when P was less than 0.01. If I2 was <25%, no heterogeneity was noted. If the value of I2 was between 25% and 50%, the degree of heterogeneity was considered to be small. If the value of I2 was between 50% and 75%, heterogeneity was noted. If I2 was >75%, large heterogeneity was noted. AI = artificial intelligence, CI = confidence interval, CNN = Convolutional neural network, EC = esophageal cancer, FN = false negatives, FP = false positives, TN = true negatives, TP = true positives

Figure 2: Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity of CNN-based AI based on endoscopic images for the diagnosis of early EC. The dots correspond to the individual studies included in this analysis, and both sides of the line represent the 95% CI. The narrower the line is, the greater the accuracy of the study and the greater the weight. The diamond corresponds to the pooled result. The intermediate vertical line represents an invalid line. Q statistic test card square value (Chi-square), degree of freedom (df), <i>P</i> values, and <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> statistic test results (inconsistency [<i>I</i><sup>2</sup>]) correspond to heterogeneity test results. The Q test was used to assess heterogeneity, while the <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> test was used to measure the size of heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was considered when <i>P</i> was less than 0.01. If <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> was <25%, no heterogeneity was noted. If the value of <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> was between 25% and 50%, the degree of heterogeneity was considered to be small. If the value of <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> was between 50% and 75%, heterogeneity was noted. If <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> was >75%, large heterogeneity was noted. AI = artificial intelligence, CI = confidence interval, CNN = Convolutional neural network, EC = esophageal cancer, FN = false negatives, FP = false positives, TN = true negatives, TP = true positives